Văn Miếu (文廟) or Temple of Literature, known as "pagode des Corbeaux" during the period of French colonisation, is a temple of Confucius in Vietnam. The most prominent and famous is that situated in the city of Hanoi, although Văn Miếu can be found throughout Vietnam.
It was founded in 1070 as a Confucian temple. Only parts of the Văn Miếu complex date back to the earliest period, although much of the architecture dates to the Lý (1010 - 1225) and Trần (1225 - 1400) Dynasties.
In 1076 Vietnam's first university, the Quốc Tử Giám (國子監) or Imperial Academy, was established within the temple to educate Vietnam's bureaucrats, royalty and other members of the elite. The university functioned for more than 700 years, from 1076 to 1779. During that time 2,313 doctors graduated.
In 1484 emperor Lê Thánh Tông started the tradition of carving the names of the laureates of the university on stone steles, which were placed on top of stone turtles. Of the 116 steles corresponding to the examinations held between 1142 and 1778, only 82 remain. Wikipedia: Temple of Literature